Legal Representative means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person and includes any person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased and where a party acts in a representative character, the person on whom the estate devolves on the death of the party so acting, Section 2(g), Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. A legatee under a will intending to represent interest of estate of deceased testator held, is a “legal representative”, Suresh Kumar Bansal v. Krishna Bansal, (2010) 1 SCC (Civ) 365. A legatee under a will, who intends to represent the estate of the deceased testator, being an intermeddler with the estate of the deceased, will be a legal representative, Jaladi Suguna v. Satya Sai Central Trust, (2008) 8 SCC 521.
It is now well settled that determination of the question as to who is the legal representatives of the deceased plaintiff or defendant under Order XXII Rule 5 of the Code of Civil Procedure is only for the purposes of bringing legal representatives on record for the conducting of those legal proceedings only and does not operate as res judicata and the inter se dispute between the rival legal representatives has to be independently tried and decided in probate proceedings.
‘Legal representative’ -Definition :-
`Legal representative’ according to its definition in section 2(11) of CPC, means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person, and includes any person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased. Thus a legatee under a will, who intends to represent the estate of the deceased testator, being an intermeddler with the estate of the deceased, will be a legal representative. Order 22 CPC inter alia deals with death of parties. Rule 4 relates to the procedure in case of death of one of several defendants or of the sole defendant. Rule 5 relates to determination of question as to legal representative. Rule 11 relates to application of Order 20 to appeals.
Filing an application to bring the legal representatives on record, does not amount to bringing the legal representatives on record. When an LR application is filed, the court should consider it and decide whether the persons named therein as the legal representatives, should be brought on record to represent the estate of the deceased. Until such decision by the court, the persons claiming to be the legal representatives have no right to represent the estate of the deceased, nor prosecute or defend the case. If there is a dispute as to who is the legal representative, a decision should be rendered on such dispute. Only when the question of legal representative is determined by the court and such legal representative is brought on record, it can be said that the estate of the deceased is represented. The determination as to who is the legal representative under Order 22 Rule 5 will of course be for the limited purpose of representation of the estate of the deceased, for adjudication of that case. Such determination for such limited purpose will not confer on the person held to be the legal representative, any right to the property which is the subject matter of the suit, vis-…-vis other rival claimants to the estate of the deceased. See. Jaladi Suguna v. Satya Sai Central Trust.
The provisions of Rules 4 and 5 of Order 22 are mandatory. When a respondent in an appeal dies, the Court cannot simply say that it will hear all rival claimants to the estate of the deceased respondent and proceed to dispose of the appeal. Nor can it implead all persons claiming to be legal representatives, as parties to the appeal without deciding who will represent the estate of the deceased, and proceed to hear the appeal on merits. The court cannot also postpone the decision as to who is the legal representative of the deceased respondent, for being decided along with the appeal on merits. The Code clearly provides that where a question arises as to whether any person is or is not the legal representative of a deceased respondent, such question shall be determined by the court. The Code also provides that where one of the respondents dies and the right to sue does not survive against the surviving respondents, the court shall, on an application made in that behalf, cause the legal representatives of the deceased respondent to be made parties, and then proceed with the case. Though Rule 5 does not specifically provide that determination of legal representative should precede the hearing of the appeal on merits, Rule 4 read with Rule 11 make it clear that the appeal can be heard only after the legal representatives are brought on record.
Legal heir – Legal Representative: Difference.
“Legal representative” as defined in Civil Procedure Code which was admittedly applicable to the proceedings in the suit, means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person, and includes any person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased and where a party sues or is sued in a representative character the person on whom the estate devolves on the death of the party so suing or sued. The definition is inclusive in character and its scope is wide, it is not confined to legal heirs only instead it stipulates a person who may or may not be heir, competent to inherit the property of the deceased but he should represent the estate of the deceased person. It includes heirs as well as persons who represent the estate even without title either as executors or administrators in possession of the estate of the deceased. All such persons would be covered by the expression “legal representative”. If there are many heirs, those in possession bona fide, without there being any fraud or collusion, are also entitled to represent the estate of the deceased. See. Custodian Of Branches Of Banco., vs Nalini Bai Naique, 1989 SCR (2) 810.
In Daya Ram And Others vs Shyam Sundari, (1965) 1 SCR 231 the Supreme Court recognised the principle of representation of the estate by some heirs, where the defendant died during the pendency of the suit to enforce claim against him and all the heirs are not brought on record within time. The Supreme Court held that if after bona fide inquiry, some, but not all the heirs, of a deceased defendant, are brought on record the heirs so brought on record represent the entire estate of the deceased and the decision of the Court in the absence of fraud or collusion binds even those who are not brought on record as well as those who are impleaded as legal represen- tatives of the deceased defendant.
In N.K. Mohammad Sulaiman vs N. C. Mohammad Ismail And Others, (1966) 1 SCR 937 the Supreme Court rejected the contention that in a suit to enforce a mortgage instituted after the death of a Muslim, if all the heirs of the deceased were not impleaded in the suit and a decree was obtained, and in execution the property was sold, the auction purchaser could have title only to the extent of the interest of the heirs who were impleaded, and he could have no title to the interest of those heirs who had not been impleaded to the suit. The Court held, that those who were impleaded as party to the suit in place of the deceased defendant represented the entire estate as they had share in the property and since they had been brought on record the decree was binding on the entire estate.
Section 2(29) in The Income- Tax Act, 1995:
(29) ” legal representative” has the meaning assigned to it in clause (11) of section 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 7 (5 of 1908 ).
Section 2 (29) of the Act of 1961 stipulates that the meaning of legal representative assigned to it in Clause (11) of Section 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 would apply to the Income Tax Act, 1961. Section 2 (11) of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 stipulates that a legal representative means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person and includes any person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased. It also includes a party who sues or is sued in a representative character on whom the estate devolves on the death of the party so suing or sued. See. Arvind Kayan vs Union Of India & Ors, , W.P.No. 504 of 2017, dated 30-08-2017.